Working Principle Of Lead-acid Battery Lead Plate
News 2023年2月10日 113
Lead was one of the first metals used by man, smelted from ores as early as 3000 BC. Lead and zinc co-occur closely in nature, especially in primary ore deposits. They share a common source of ore-forming materials and very similar geochemical behavior, have similar outer electronic structure, are strongly sulfurophilic, and form the same soluble complex. They are similarly adsorbed to iron, manganese, clay, or organic matter.
Currently, more than 250 lead and zinc minerals have been found in the Earth’s crust. About one-third are sulfides and sulfates, but only 17 are currently available for industrial use. Among them, the lead industrial minerals are galena, antimony antimony, brittle antimony antimony lead ore, wheel ore, white lead ore, lead alum, chromium lead ore, phosphorus chloride lead ore, arsenic lead ore, vanadium lead ore, molybdenum lead ore; Zinc industrial minerals are sphalerite, wurtzite, rhomboxerite, isoperite, siloxerite, water zinc ore. Galena and sphalerite are the main industrial mineral raw materials for smelting lead and zinc.
Mainly used in the manufacture of lead batteries, in acid industry and metallurgical industry with lead plate, lead pipe as the lining protection equipment, electrical industry as cable cover and fuse. Lead alloys containing tin and antimony are used for printing movable type; lead and tin alloys are used for making fusible lead electrodes; and lead and lead-plated steel plates are used in the construction industry. Lead has good absorption of X-ray and gamma rays and is widely used as a protective material for X-ray machines and atomic energy devices. Lead has been or will soon be replaced by other materials in some fields for reasons of lead toxicity and economy.
Lead plate application scenarios:
Lead plate has strong corrosion resistance, acid and alkali resistance, acid environment construction, medical radiation protection, X-ray, CT room ray protection, aggravation, sound insulation and many other aspects, and is a relatively cheap radiation protection material.
The anode (PbO2) and cathode (Pb) in the lead battery are immersed in the electrolyte (dilute sulfuric acid), and 2V power will be generated between the two poles. This is according to the principle of the lead battery. Through charging and discharging, the anode and cathode and electrolyte will undergo the following changes:
(anode) (electrolyte) (cathode)
PbO2 + 2H2SO4 + Pb —> PbSO4 + 2H2O + PbSO4 (discharge reaction)
(Lead peroxide) (sulfuric acid) (lead spongy)
(anode) (electrolyte) (cathode)
PbSO4 + 2H2O + PbSO4 —> PbO2 + 2H2SO4 + Pb (charging reaction)
(lead sulfate) (water) (lead sulfate)
Chemical changes in the discharge of lead-acid batteries
When the battery is connected to the external circuit to discharge, the dilute sulfuric acid will react with the active substance on the negative and positive plates to produce a new compound “lead sulfate”. The sulfuric acid component is released from the electrolyte by discharge. The longer the discharge, the thinner the sulfuric acid concentration. The components consumed are proportional to the discharge, as long as the concentration of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte is measured, that is, the specific gravity, the discharge or residual energy can be known.
Chemical changes in lead-acid battery charging
Because the lead sulfate produced on the anode plate and cathode plate will be decomposed and reduced to sulfuric acid, lead and lead peroxide when charging, so the concentration of electrolyte in the battery gradually increases, that is, the proportion of electrolyte rises, and gradually returns to the concentration before discharge. This change shows that the active substance in the battery has been reduced to the state of power supply again. When the lead sulfate at the two poles is reduced to the original active substance, that is, the end of the charge, and the cathode plate produces hydrogen, the anode plate produces oxygen, charging to the final stage, the current is almost used in the water electrolysis, so the electrolyte will be reduced, at this time should be supplemented with pure water.
Caloong adopts advanced production technology and strict quality control system to ensure stable battery quality and reliable performance. Voltage, capacity and seal are 100% checked on line.