What Conditions Affect The Life Of Lead-Acid Batteries?
News 2023年2月27日 108
Plante, a Frenchman, invented the lead-acid battery in 1859, which has experienced nearly 150 years of development. Lead-acid battery has made great progress in theoretical research, product types and varieties, electrical properties and other aspects of the product, whether in transportation, communication, electricity, military or in various economic fields of navigation and aviation. Lead-acid batteries have played an indispensable role. According to the structure and use of lead-acid battery, the battery is roughly divided into four categories: 1, starting lead-acid battery; 2, power with lead-acid battery; 3. Fixed type valve-controlled sealed lead-acid battery; 4, other classes, including small valve controlled sealed lead-acid battery, lead-acid battery with mining lamp, etc.
The failure of lead-acid batteries is the result of many factors, including the internal factors of the plate, such as the composition of the active substance. Crystal type, porosity, plate size, grid material and structure also depend on a series of external factors, such as discharge current density, electrolyte concentration and temperature, discharge depth, maintenance condition and storage time. The main external factors are described here.
Lead-acid battery life
1. Discharge depth
Discharge depth refers to the extent to which discharge begins to stop during use. 100% depth means full capacity is released. The life of lead-acid battery is greatly affected by the depth of discharge. The key of design consideration is deep cycle use, shallow cycle use or floating charge use. Lead-acid batteries fail quickly if shallow cycle batteries are used for deep cycle use.
Because the positive active substance of lead dioxide itself is not well combined with each other, lead sulfate generated when discharging, charging and restore to lead dioxide, the molar volume of lead sulfate is larger than lead oxide, the active substance volume expansion when discharging. If one mole of lead oxide is converted to one mole of lead sulfate, the volume increases by 95%. This repeated contraction and expansion, so that the lead dioxide particles between each other gradually relaxed, easy to fall off. If a mole of lead dioxide active substance only 20% discharge, shrinkage, expansion degree is greatly reduced, the destruction of binding force becomes slow. Therefore, the deeper the discharge depth, the shorter its cycle life.
2. Degree of overcharging
When overcharging, a large amount of gas is precipitated, and then the active material on the positive plate suffers the impact of gas, which will promote the active material to fall off; In addition, the positive plate grid alloy is also subjected to severe anodizing and corrosion, so the battery overcharge will shorten the life of the battery.
3. The influence of temperature
The life of lead-acid battery is prolonged with the increase of temperature. Between 10℃~35℃, every increase of 1℃, about 5~6 cycles, between 35℃~45℃, every increase of 1℃ can extend the life of more than 25 cycles, higher than 50℃ because of the negative vulcanization capacity loss and reduced life.
Battery life increases with temperature over a certain temperature range because capacity increases with temperature. If the discharge capacity is constant, the discharge depth decreases and the solid life prolongs when the temperature rises.
4. The influence of sulfuric acid concentration
Although the increase of acid density is beneficial to the positive plate capacity, the self-discharge of the battery increases, the corrosion of the grid also accelerates, and also promotes the loose shedding of lead dioxide. With the increase of acid density used in the battery, the cycle life decreases.
5. Influence of discharge current density
As the discharge current density increases, the battery life decreases, because the high current density and high acid concentration conditions promote the positive lead dioxide loose shedding.
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