The Production Process of Electric Vehicle Batteries

News 2023年9月8日 67

The Production Process of Electric Vehicle Batteries

Electric vehicle batteries are familiar components to many people. Regardless of whether they are electric car batteries or conventional automotive starter batteries, their manufacturing processes are generally similar. The production of lead-acid dry batteries also involves distinct processes, including internal circulation and external circulation battery types. For lead-acid batteries, the distinction between internal and external circulation lies mainly in the additional production steps. Before assembly, one type has pre-charged positive plates (matured plates), while the other has uncharged positive plates (raw plates). You may wonder, what exactly are raw and matured plates?

To explain, during the assembly of the finished battery, if the positive plates come pre-charged, they are referred to as matured plates. In other words, batteries that come with voltage after installation are termed matured plates. The difference lies in the production procedures; raw plates are charged after installation, that’s the idea.

Automobile energy storage battery

The Battery Manufacturing Process for Electric Vehicles

The production process of plates is quite straightforward. It involves melting the material at high temperatures and pouring it into plate molds to shape them. During the battery assembly process, the first step is to weigh the plates. Why is this done? Battery modules need to have even weights, as substantial weight differences could lead to uneven capacity distribution. The internal structure of batteries comprises six individual cells, each with positive and negative plates separated by fibrous separator paper. This white separator paper prevents positive and negative plates from coming into direct contact, thus preventing short-circuits.

Each individual cell has a predefined voltage of 2V. If a battery consists of six cells, it’s a 12V battery. Variants like 8V, 16V, and rarely 24V batteries also exist, mostly for specialized applications. After weighing the plates, they undergo compression and casing. Previously, much of these processes were manual; however, with societal advancements, they have become semi-automated or fully automated, greatly enhancing efficiency. Following this, the scattered plates are welded to form series connections between individual cells.

The subsequent steps are critical: sealing, capping, and gluing. Why is this phase crucial? Neglecting these steps could lead to inadequate sealing and unclear ports, resulting in severe consequences. Subsequently, reflow soldering takes place, usually performed with specialized tools. Then, acid solution is filled into the cells, ensuring proper ion conductivity. The battery undergoes several discharge and charge cycles before entering a cleaning area to maintain its exterior cleanliness.

The final step is the most pivotal: accurately measuring voltage and assembling cells to ensure proper consumer usage. Here’s a secret to share: virtually every batch of batteries produced, be it thousands or even hundreds of thousands, is slightly different. This reflects the inherent variability in battery manufacturing.