Introduction to production principle and technology of lead-acid battery

News 2022年12月6日 128

With the continuous development of society, human’s demand for energy is more and more large, oil, coal and other non-raw resources are increasingly facing exhaustion. The use of electric cars is a necessity for human beings. At one extreme, humans will have to do this when the Earth runs out of things like oil and combustible ice, and nuclear and solar power are the only options. The development of electric vehicles is an inevitable, the rise of the battery also rapid development, people’s demand for a huge increase. Let’s see how the caloong lead-acid battery is made.

Lead Acid Battery

The main battery series in the world are:

Starting battery: mainly used for cars, tractors, diesel ships and other starting and lighting.

Fixed battery: mainly used in communications, power plants, computer systems as protection, automatic control of the backup power supply.

Traction battery: mainly used for all kinds of battery cars, forklifts, forklifts and other power supply.

Railway battery: mainly used for railway diesel locomotive, electric locomotive, passenger car starting, lighting power.

Motorcycle battery: mainly used for various specifications of motorcycle starting and lighting.

Storage battery for coal mine: mainly used for electric locomotive traction power supply.

Storage battery: mainly used for wind and hydroelectric power storage.

According to the battery plate structure classification: forming type, paste type and tube type battery.

According to the battery cover and structure classification: open type, exhaust type, acid proof flameproof and sealed valve control type battery.

According to the battery maintenance mode classification: ordinary, less maintenance, maintenance free battery.

Lead Acid Battery

Working principle of lead-acid battery

The positive active substance of lead-acid battery is lead dioxide, the negative active substance is sponge lead, and the electrolyte is dilute sulfuric acid solution. The discharge chemical reaction is lead dioxide, sponge lead react with the electrolyte to produce lead sulfate and water. Pb (negative) +PbO2 (positive) +2H2SO4====2PbSO4+2H2O (discharge reaction) Its charging chemical reaction is lead sulfate and water conversion to lead dioxide, sponge lead and dilute sulfuric acid. 2PbSO4+2H2O====Pb (negative electrode) +PbO2 (positive electrode) +2H2SO4 (charging reaction) lead-acid battery single cell rated voltage is 2.0V, generally 6V in series, 12V for car, motorcycle start lighting use, single battery generally series 48V, 96V, 110 or 220V for different occasions. Rubber, PVC, PE or AGM partitions with very low resistance and few impurities can be used between the positive and negative plates in the battery.

Lead acid battery process and main equipment

Lead powder manufacturing, grid casting, plate manufacturing, plate formation, battery assembly

Lead powder manufacturing equipment: casting machine or section cutting machine, lead powder machine and transportation storage system;

Grid casting equipment: lead melting furnace, plate casting machine and various molds;

Plate manufacturing equipment: and paste machine, smear machine, surface drying, curing drying system, etc.

Plate forming equipment: charge and discharge machine;

Water cooling and environmental protection equipment;

Assembly battery equipment: automobile battery, motorcycle battery, small and medium-sized sealed valve controlled lead-acid battery assembly line

Battery testing equipment: all kinds of battery performance testing.

Typical lead acid battery process overview

Lead-acid battery is mainly composed of battery groove, battery cover, positive and negative plates, dilute sulfuric acid electrolyte, partition and accessories. The manufacturing process is described as follows:

Lead powder manufacturing: 1# electrolytic lead with special equipment lead powder machine through oxidation screening to make meet the requirements of lead powder.

Grid casting: The casting of lead-antimony alloy, lead-calcium alloy or other alloy lead, usually by gravity casting, into a variety of different types of grid to meet the requirements.

Plate manufacturing: with lead powder and dilute sulfuric acid and additives mixed on the surface of the grid and then drying and curing is the raw plate.

Plate formation: positive and negative plate under the action of direct current and dilute sulfuric acid through REDOX reaction to produce lead oxide, and then through cleaning and drying can be used for battery assembly of positive and negative plate.

Battery assembly: different models of different number of plates according to different needs to assemble a variety of different types of batteries.

Note: Each unit can choose different processes due to different technological conditions.

Introduction to grid casting

The grid is a carrier of active material and a conductive fluid collector. The common open battery grid is generally cast with lead-antimony alloy, the maintenance-free battery grid is generally cast with low-antimony alloy or lead-calcium alloy, and the sealed valve-controlled lead-acid battery grid is generally cast with lead-calcium alloy.

Step 1: Determine the type of alloy lead according to the battery type and put it into the lead furnace for heating and melting. After meeting the technical requirements, cast the lead liquid into the metal mold. After cooling, the mold is trimmed and placed.

The second step: the trimmed grid can be transferred to the next process after a certain aging period.

Grating main control parameters: grating quality; Plate grid thickness; The integrity of the grid; Grid geometry size, etc.;

Introduction to lead powder manufacturing

Shimadzu and Patton processes are used in the manufacture of lead powder. The result is that 1# electrolytic lead is processed into lead powder which meets the technical requirements of battery production. The main components of lead powder are lead oxide and metallic lead, the quality of lead powder has a very close relationship with the quality of manufacturing. In our country, the Shimadzu method is commonly used to produce lead powder, and in America and Europe, the Barton method is commonly used to produce lead powder.

The production process of lead powder by Shimadzu method is described as follows:

The first step: test qualified electrolytic lead through casting or other methods into a certain size of lead shot or lead segment;

The second step: put the lead shot or lead section into the lead powder machine, the lead shot or lead section through oxidation to produce lead oxide;

The third step: Put the lead powder into the designated container or powder storage warehouse, after 2-3 days of aging, test qualified can be used.

Main control parameters of lead powder: oxidation degree; Apparent density; Water absorption capacity; Particle size, etc.

Introduction to plate manufacturing

The plate is the core part of the battery, and its quality directly affects the performance index of the battery. The production process of coated plate is described as follows:

The first step: test qualified lead powder, dilute sulfuric acid, additives with special equipment and make lead paste;

The second step: the lead paste with a smear machine or hand fill on the grid;

The third step: solidify and dry the plate after filling, that is, get the raw plate.

Raw plate main control parameters: lead paste formula; Apparent density; Acid content; The amount of paste; Thickness; Free lead content; Moisture content, etc.

Assembly process introduction

Battery assembly differs greatly from that of sealed valve-controlled lead-acid batteries. Sealed valve-controlled lead-acid batteries require tight assembly with AGM partitions, while car batteries generally use PE, PVC or rubber partitions. The assembly process is described as follows:

1: Put the qualified plate into the welding tool according to the technical requirements;

2: cast welded or hand welded pole group into a clean battery slot;

3: The car battery needs to be through the wall welding and heat sealing, and the sealed valve-controlled lead-acid battery if the ABS battery groove needs to be bonded with a special adhesive.

The main control parameters of battery assembly are: the welding quality and material of the junction bar; Seal performance, positive and negative polarity, etc.

Brief introduction of formation process

Plate forming and battery forming are two different methods of battery manufacturing, which can be selected according to the specific situation. Plate forming is generally relatively easy to control, the cost is high and the environmental pollution needs special treatment. It is difficult to control the quality of the battery formation, which generally requires higher quality of the raw plate produced, but the cost is relatively low. The formation of the sealed valve-controlled lead-acid battery is described as follows:

1: the test qualified raw plate according to the technical requirements into the battery tank seal;

2: a certain concentration of dilute sulfuric acid is injected into the battery according to the specified amount;

3: after placing according to the size of the regulation through the DC, generally after the formation of the need for discharge inspection and storage ready for delivery.

The main control parameters of battery formation are: tank acid quantity; Tank acid density; Tank acid temperature; Charging amount and time, etc.

Lead Acid Battery

Use and maintenance

Lead-acid battery plays an irreplaceable role in secondary chemical power supply because of its simple manufacturing process, abundant raw materials and moderate price. Especially, the appearance of valve-controlled battery makes the traditional battery full of vitality. Battery life and manufacturing has a close relationship, and the use of the method also has a great impact, the correct use of the method to extend the life of the battery is of great benefit. For the traditional open type battery daily attention should be paid to the following aspects:

(1) The number, density and charging degree of the electrolyte should be paid attention to, especially the closely related charging system is particularly concerned about, if the charging amount is large, the battery water loss, easy to cause the active material of the plate to fall off, the bottom short circuit makes the battery internal temperature is high and shorten the life, if the charging amount is small, it is easy to cause the battery loss, Battery in the case of long-term loss of power, can lead to irreversible sulphate plate, its performance is the charging process voltage rise quickly, a very short time to complete, discharge voltage drop rapidly.

(2) The purity of the electrolyte, generally use battery special electrolyte or supplementary liquid perfusion, it is strictly prohibited to replace with ordinary sulfuric acid and tap water.

③ Keep the surface clean for daily use, and the exhaust port is smooth.

(4) Place when not in use should be fully charged, at the same time three months for a supplement.

For sealed valve controlled lead-acid battery daily attention should be paid to the following aspects:

(1) Pay attention to the range of charging voltage when floating charge is used, the voltage is generally controlled at 2.15±0.1V/ single cell, and the voltage when cycling is used is generally controlled at 2.35±0.1V/ single cell. If the instruction manual requires, it should be operated according to the instruction manual.

② Pay attention to the use of ambient temperature, generally not more than 30 degrees is appropriate. The voltage regulation should be strengthened when the temperature changes greatly.

③ For different manufacturers of products can not be mixed, the same manufacturer of products old and new can not be mixed.

④ Sealed valve-controlled lead-acid battery is best not to open the cover to replenish the electrolyte and replace the safety valve.

Caloong adopts advanced production technology and strict quality control system to ensure stable battery quality and reliable performance. Voltage, capacity and seal are 100% checked on line.