Do You Know Lead Acid Battery History & Types?

News 2022年10月27日 186

Lead Acid Battery History

The lead acid battery was invented by Plante in 1859. Lead acid batteries are cheap, easy to produce, operate at low temperatures, have large current discharge, working at low temperature. Nowadays, lead-acid batteries are widely used in transportation, banking, hospitals, communications, and other fields. 

lead acid battery
lead acid battery

At the beginning of the 20th century, lead-acid batteries had undergone a number of major improvements to improve energy density, cycle life, high-rate discharge, and other properties.  However, an open lead-acid battery has two disadvantages.

At the end of the charging water will decompose into hydrogen, oxygen gas precipitation, often need to add acid water. When the gas spills, it carries acid fog, corrodes the equipment, and pollutes the environment. In the past twenty years, in order to solve the above two problems, all countries in the world compete to develop sealed lead-acid batteries, hoping to achieve battery sealing and obtain clean green energy. 

In 1912, Thomas Edison published a patent, proposing to use of platinum wire in the upper space of a single battery. When an electric current passes through, platinum will be heated and become a catalyst for hydrogen and oxidation, which will recombine H2 and O2 to return to the electrolyte.  But the patent never materialized because the platinum catalyst quickly failed, leaving gas to form and a risk of explosion. 

gel lead acid battery
gel lead acid battery

In the 1960s, the United States Gates company invented lead-calcium alloy, causing the hot development of sealed lead-acid battery, the world’s major battery companies invested a lot of manpower and material resources to develop. 

In 1969, during the implementation of the American lunar landing program, sealed valve-controlled lead-acid batteries and cadmium-nickel batteries were included in the power supply for lunar vehicles. Finally, the cadmium-nickel battery was adopted, but sealed lead-acid battery technology has been developed since then. 

Sealed Lead Acid Battery

Approximately 350,000 small sealed lead-acid batteries were manufactured by EC in the United States in 1969-1970. These batteries, with glass-fiber cotton partitions and a depleted liquid system, were the first commercially available valve-controlled lead-acid batteries, but the oxygen recombination principle was not yet recognized. 

Valve Regulated Lead Acid Battery

In 1975, GatesRutter Company, after many years of hard work and paying a high price, obtained a patent for the invention of a D-type sealed lead-acid dry battery, which became the battery prototype of today’s VRLA. 

In 1979, GNB purchased the patent of Gates and invented the MFX patent alloy, and began to publicize and produce maintenance-free lead-acid batteries with large-capacity suction seals. 

valve regulated lead acid battery
valve regulated lead acid battery

In 1984, VRLA batteries were used on a small scale in the United States and Europe.  In 1987, with the rapid development of the telecommunications industry, VRLA batteries in the telecommunications sector has been rapidly promoted and used. 

In 1991, the British Telecom department checked and tested VRLA batteries in use, and found that VRLA batteries did not appear as advertised by manufacturers, such as thermal runaway, combustion, and early capacity failure, which caused a wide discussion in the battery industry.  And on the development of VRLA battery prospects, capacity monitoring technology, thermal control, and reliability expressed doubt, at this time, VRLA battery market share is less than 50% of the rich liquid battery, the original mentioned: “seal free protective lead-acid battery” name was formally replaced by “VRLA battery”, the reason is that VRLA battery is a battery that also needs to be managed, Using “maintenance-free” can be misleading. 

In 1992, in view of the problems raised in 1991, battery experts and technicians of manufacturers published articles to put forward countermeasures and views, among which DrDaridFeder proposed to use the method of measuring conductance to monitor VRLA batteries.  I. C. Biringer commented on the advanced nature of VRLA battery from the technical aspect.  These articles have greatly promoted the development and application of VRLA battery. 

Maintenance Free Sealed Lead Acid Battery

In 1992, the world’s VRLA battery consumption in Europe and the Americas increased substantially, in Asian countries advocated the use of VRLA batteries;  In 1996 VRLA battery basically replaced the traditional flooded battery, VRLA battery has been recognized by the majority of users. The Valve Regulated Lead Battery (VRLA) basic characteristic is to use it is without acid water during maintenance, battery for sealing structure, does not leak acid, also won’t row acid mist, battery lid has a one-way valve (also called a safety valve).

The function of the valve is that when the amount of gas inside the battery exceeds a certain value (usually expressed by the pressure value), that is, when the pressure inside the battery rises to a certain value, the exhaust valve will automatically open, discharge the gas, and then automatically close the valve to prevent the air from entering the battery. 

Classification of valve-controlled lead-acid batteries 

Valve-controlled lead-acid batteries are divided into AGM and GEL batteries

AGM Lead Acid Battery

AGM adopts Absorbed Glass Mat as the diaphragm, and the electrolyte is absorbed in the plate and grid. The battery can work either standing or lying down because of the poor electro-hydraulic design and no flowing electrolyte in the battery. 

Caloong agm lead acid battery
Caloong agm lead acid battery

Gel Lead Acid Battery

Colloidal (GEL) SiO2 as a coagulant, electrolyte adsorption in the plate, and colloidal, general vertical work.  The VRLA batteries discussed in the current literature and conferences refer to AGM batteries unless otherwise specified.